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|Atomic Weight||101.07(2) g/mol|
|Chemical series||Transition metal|
|Appearance|| silvery white metallic |
|Group, Period, Block||8, 5, d|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 5s1 4d7|
|Electrons per shell|| 2, 8, 18, 15, 1 |
|Melting point|| 2334 °C2,607.15 K |
|Boiling point|| 4150 °C4,423.15 K |
|Isotopes of Ruthenium|
|All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.|
Ruthenium is an exceptionally rare metal. It is among the six scarcest elements on our planet. Ruthenium is a transition metal and is part of the platinum group, whose members include the following: rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, ruthenium and platinum. Ruthenium’s symbol is Ru and its atomic number is 44. It located in Groups 8, 9, and 10, and in Rows 5 and 6.
Ruthenium is a hard silvery white metal. Ruthenium melts between 2,300 and 2450 C, and boils between 3,900 and 4,150 ºC. It will not vitiate near room temperatures, but it will oxidize in air heated around 800 ºC. Ruthenium is not assailed by hot or cold acids or by aqua regia(a highly corrosive substance), but if potassium chloride is added to a solution exposed to the element, it will oxidize in an explosive manner. 
Ruthenium occurs in ores mixed in with other metals. The most common of these being rhodium, palladium, platinum, silver, and gold. Once the metals are separated by the means of a chemical process, the remaining substance will contain what will later become pure ruthenium. The substance containing the ruthenium is melted with sodium oxide(Na2O2 ) and is distillated into water to obtain the ruthenium and osmium salts. A reaction between the salt and chlorine gas creates the highly reactive oxides RuO4 and OsO4. The oxides are then dissolved in a treatment with hydrochloric acid, which forms H3RuCl6. The ruthenium is then extracted out in the form of (NH4)3RuCl6 by being treated with ammonium chloride. The pure ruthenium is evaporated out of (NH4)3RuCl6 by burning it over hydrogen gas. Another process of obtaining ruthenium involves extracting it from used nuclear fuels. Used nuclear fuel contains large amounts of waste elements. Ruthenium being one of the waste elements can be extracted and then reused.
In 1884 ruthenium was discovered by Russian chemist, Karl Karlovich Klaus. In Kazan University, Kazan, Klaus was able to isolate ruthenium from platinum. He named the element after the Latin word for Russia, Ruthenia. It is sometimes believed that polish chemist, Jedrzej Sniadecki, first discovered ruthenium seventy-seven years earlier, but Sniadecki withdrew his name from the discovery when fellow scientist could not recreate the element. Today ruthenium is mined in the Ural Mountains and in North and South America. 
Ruthenium is most commonly used as an alloying agent. It is the most sufficient hardener for platinum and palladium. Also, it is used to prevent corrosion in titanium. Corrosion resistance of titanium is ameliorated by a hundred times by adding to it 0.1% ruthenium. Ruthenium has many other, less common uses. They include the following: being alloyed with gold to make jewelry, being used in the tips of fountain pens, being focused on in much chemical research, and its beta-decaying isotope 106 is used in radiotherapy of eye tumors. 
Ruthenium compounds are profoundly toxic as well as carcinogenic. The compounds of ruthenium can stain skin, burn the eyes, and damage the respiratory tract. If ruthenium is ingested, it can be absorbed into the bones. Ruthenium oxide, RuO4, is highly toxic and volatile ruthenium compound. Exposure to it may result in fatality. 
- Isotopes of Ruthenium by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
- Ruthenium by Wikipedia
- Ruthenium by Jefferson Lab
- Chemical Properties of Rutheniumby Lenntech Water treatment and air purification