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- This article refers to the chemical element. For the planet in the solar system, see Mercury.
|Atomic Weight||200.59 g/mol200.59 amu|
|Chemical series||Transition metals|
|Appearance|| Silver color |
|Group, Period, Block||12, 6, d|
|Electron configuration||[Xe] 6s4, 4f14, 5d10|
|Electrons per shell|
|Density||13.534 grams per milliliter g/ml|
|Melting point|| 234.32K-38.83 °C |
|Boiling point|| 629.88K356.73 °C |
|Isotopes of Mercury|
|All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.|
Mercury, also known as quicksilver and hydrargyrum from it's Latin root. It is a thin, water like silver liquid and it's name hydrargyrum is derived from its latin root. Mercury has the atomic number of 80 and the symbol Hg. Mercury was given it's name from the Roman god mercury.
Mercury is heavy, white, and liquid at room temperature. It is one of the two (the other is bromine) metals that remain liquid at IUPAC’s standard temperature (32 F) and have a wide range between boiling and solid. Mercury becomes solid at –20 degrees.
Mercury is rarely found in nature in its natural state. Instead, it is extracted and vacuum distilled from its chief ore, cinnabar, unless found polluting streams. Mercury is a known toxin and can be breathed in and can penetrate skin. If use of mercury is unavoidable, be sure it is contained not only in a safe, prepared lab, but also under a ventilated hood to ensure no risk to the user’s respiratory system.  Mercury can only be handled within a flask, which weighs about 76 lb.Mercury has been found in the South Western United States in states such as California, Nevada, and Utah. Outside of the States, Spain is the leading manufacturer of mercury. Other manufacturers include Finland, China, and Italy. 
A less toxic version of mercury can be used for household items like batteries, thermometers, and barometers.
Uses of mercury are a few pesticides and dental amalgams, the material used for filling cavities in teeth caused by tooth decay. The mercury in the amalgams has been found as a source of Mercury poisoning. It is also used for and anti fouling paint, used in painting the undersides of boats. 
Mercury has a very high density and low melting point, making it extremely sensitive to changing conditions and usable thermometers.  Mercury was discovered by ancient philosophers such as the Chinese and Egyptians, mercury has been in use for over 3500 years for medicines and was used to extend life and heal bone fractures and used by the ancient Romans for Cosmetic use.  More recently, however, mercury has been found useful in everyday items such as thermometers, streetlights, electric signs, and other lamps. It was also formerly used to treat syphilis.  Mercury can also be used to make chlorine 
Mercuric Sulfide: Can be used as either a black or red paint pigment 
Mercury fulminate: a dry explosive ignited by being struck or heated.
Mercurous Chloride (I): (calomel) used in electrochemical dimensions
Mercuric Chloride (II): Insecticide, in rodent toxins, and a cleaning agent
As made more popular through Lewis Caroll’s 'Alice in wonderland', the phrase “mad as a hatter” is derived from mercury poison in hatters. In the past, mercury was used to make leather pelts to be used for hats by the hatters. Hatters would inhale the fumes, causing brain injury through mercury poisoning. This caused them to tremble, be aggressive, have mood swings, and show anti-social behavior.  Mercury poisoning is now nicknamed "mad-hatter's disease" because of these historical events. 
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Mercury by Thomson Gal, Chemistry Explained
- ↑ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
- ↑ Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Element.com – Mercury. Nov. 16, 2010.
- ↑ 1993-2010 Mark Winter
- ↑ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press