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|Atomic Weight||10.811 g/mol10.811 amu|
|Appearance|| Black/Brown |
|Group, Period, Block||13, 2, p|
|Electron configuration||1s2, 2s2, 2p1|
|Electrons per shell|| 2, 3 |
|Melting point|| 2349 K2,075.85 °C |
|Boiling point|| 400 K126.85 °C |
|Isotopes of Boron|
|All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.|
Boron comes from the Arabic word buraq, meaning "white." Its atoms are less complex than other elements, being one of the simplest atoms with fewer neutrons and protons. Boron's chemical symbol is B, its atomic number is 5, and it occurs naturally as 80% 11B and 20% 10B giving Boron its average atomic weight of 10.81. Because it only has three electrons to work with (its electron configuration is 1s22s22p1), the ion is nonpolarizable. It is also used in reactor control rods because of Boron's nuclear properties, not because of its chemistry. Boron is found in an assortment of minerals all related to Borax and Sodium tetraborate. The naturally occurring ore of Boron, Borax, has the same name in French and German as in English, but the element is called bor in those languages. Boron is a comparatively scarce element in the earth's crust making up 0.001% of the earth's crust.
Brown amorphous boron is made from chemical reactions and its Boron atoms are randomly bonded together without long range order. There are quite a variety of different types of Boron. One type of Boron is called crystalline boron which is very hard with a high melting point. This boron crystal is also analogous to carbon crystals (diamond), but boron has a lot of different structural possibilities because of its 3-bond shape. This requires the atoms to be asymmetrically bonded in a 3-dimensional volume. Two other types of boron called crystalline/metallic boron can convey infrared light. Metallic boron is a weak electrical conductor but at high temperatures it is very good conductor. Chemically, boron has an inadequate amount of electrons, so it's also an electrophile. Boron is unique, being the least electronegative non-metal. This means that when it has any kind of reaction it almost always loses electrons.
Boron Nitride is a kind of material where the nitrogen makes up for boron's electron deficiency. This Boron nitride is sometimes used to make super hard crystals. These crystals are next after the diamond in hardness and, similar to diamonds, boron nitride is a fantastic conductor of heat as well as being an electric insulator.
Not only is boron nitride similar to diamonds but it is also a bit similar to another form of carbon in the structural and lubricating traits of graphite. When boron nitride is made of layers of fused hexagonal sheets which are placed in registry (which means that they are placed exactly on top of one another) the polar B-N bonds obstruct electron transfer so that this kind of boron nitride isn't an electrical conductor.
Some of the greatest economically important compounds of boron are Orthoboric acid (H3BO3) or boric acid, Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate, and Sodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax. Boric acid or orthoboric acid in used in the making of eye drops, textile fiberglass, and flat panel displays. Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate is abundantly used in making sodium perborate bleach and insulating fiberglass. Borax or Sodium tetraborate decahydrate is used in the production of anti-corrosion systems and adhesives. 
Boron doesn't appear as an uncombined element in nature. It is produced mostly by the U.S. and by Turkey. Kernite and borax ore are both found in the Mojave Desert in California and are important sources of the element. Boron is found in minerals or compounds such as borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, ulexite and borates. Boric acid is found in spring waters made by volcanoes and ulexite is a mineral formed from evaporation of water containing boron and calcium. Ulexite forms fibrous "cotton tuft" crystals which sometimes are aligned in a vein. If the Ulexite (also called TV rock) is sliced and polished perpendicularly to the fibers it can transmit images like a naturally occuring fiber optic.
Boron is not an easy element to prepare and is especially difficult to purify. However pure Boron can be prepared by chemically reducing volatile boron halogenides with hydrogen at high temperatures. In 1997 crystalline boron (99% pure) cost about US$5 per gram while amorphous boron cost about US$2 per gram.
Boron has hundreds of uses much like other elements. It's an important plant micro-nutrient that helps immensely in fertilization and in strengthening the plant cell walls. Boric acid is used in textiles because it adds nontoxic flame resistance and can be used to treat cotton fiber. Boric acid is more commonly used as an insecticide against ants and cockroaches. Boron has many potential uses in the medical world and is currently being researched for boron neutron capture therapy and drug delivery, and it also shows great promise in treating arthritis. Other Boranic compounds are used to preserve wood being valuable because they have such a low toxicity.
- Main Article: Isotopes
There are 13 known isotopes of Boron. The shortest-lived one is 7B, which decays through proton and alpha decay. Boron only has two naturally constant-stable isotopes, 11B and 10B. The fractionation of Boron is limited by the exchange reactions of Boron B(OH)3 and B(OH)4. 
Compounds of boron known in Arabic as Buraq from Persian and Burah from Turkish Bor have been known of for thousands of years. In Egypt they used natron to mummify bodies which contained borates and other common salts as well. In China, around 300 AD, borax glazes were used and in Ancient Rome boron compounds were used in glass-making. The element itself was not isolated until 1808. The 3 men known for this were Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Humphry Davy, and Louis Jacques Thénard. They were able to purify it to about 50 percent purity by reducing boric acid with sodium or magnesium. The three men didn't recognize it as an element but Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1824 made the identification. The first man to purify boron was W. Weintraub in 1909. Boron was thought to be unusable for the human body until research suggested differently in 1989.
Boric acid was first made in 1702 by Wilhelm Homberg who lived from 1652-1715. He prepared it by the action of mineral acids on borax. Boric acid salts are found in plants, almost all fruits, and in sea-water. The acid is found among certain volcanic areas like Nevada, Tuscany, and the Lipari islands. It is soluble in boiling water and when it's heated above 170 degrees Celsius it dehydrates and forms metaboric acid, HBO2. This metaboric acid is a white colored cubic crystalline solid that is somewhat soluble in water and melts when near 236 degrees Celsius. When it is heated even higher, above 300 degrees Celsius, it dehydrates even more and turns into tetraboric acid or pyroboric acid, H2B4O7. Further heating leads to boron trioxide. Boric acid can refer to any of these compounds. Boric acid is sometimes also called orthoboric acid and boracic acid and is in the form of a white powder which easily dissolves in water. Boric acid is a more mild acid than most, and it is most commonly used as a flame retardant, an antiseptic, in nuclear power plants to control the fission rate of uranium, an insecticide, and as a precursor of other chemical compounds. When boric acid occurs as a mineral it is sometimes called sassolite. It has the chemical formula of H3BO3, and it's sometimes written B(OH)3. The biggest source of sassolite is in California. When boric acid is produced it is mainly from borate minerals that react with sulfuric acid.