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|Atomic Weight||92.9064 g/mol92.906 amu|
|Chemical series||Transition metal|
|Group, Period, Block||5, 5, d|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 5s1 4d4|
|Electrons per shell|| 2,8,18,12,1 |
|Melting point|| 2477 °C2,750.15 K |
|Boiling point|| 4744 °C5,017.15 K |
|Isotopes of Niobium|
|All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.|
Niobium is a chemical element known by the chemical symbol Nb. It was discovered by Charles Hatchett in USA and sent to England in 1801 at first. Because It is originated from the US, it was called Columbia. The Columbia is another name of US. In hospitals, doctors use niobium for MRI. Also, because of its beauty, we can see a lot of jewelries and accessories made with niobium. At first, it was counted as tantalum, but some scientist discovered they are totally different at 1846. The name of Tantalum is from tantalus who is character of Greek mythology. Columbium is usually found with Tantalus and their properties are very similar. It was given name 'Niobium' following the name of tantalus' daughter, Niobe.
A niobium, Atomic number 41, has 92.91g/mol. It is melted when temperature goes up until 2468°C and boils when 4927°C. On 20°C, the density is 8.56g/cm^3. There are more specific details.
Vapour pressure at 1800 °C (2073 K): 7 • 10-6 [Pa]
Vapour pressure at 2500 °C (2773 K): 2 • 10-1 [Pa]
Lattice structure: body-centred-cubic
Lattice constant: 329.4 • 10-12 [m]
Hardness at 20 °C (cold-worked): 110 - 180 [HV10]
Hardness at 20 °C (recrystallized): 60 - 110 [HV10]
Young's modulus at 20 °C: 104 [GPa]
Poisson's ratio: 0.35
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion at 20 °C: 7.1 • 10-6 [m/(m•K)]
Thermal conductivity at 20 °C: 52 [W/(m•K)]
Specific heat at 20 °C: 0.27 [J/(g•K)]
Electrical conductivity at 20 °C: 7 • 10-6 [1/(Ω•m)]
Specifi c electrical resistance at 20 °C: 0.14 [(Ω•mm2)/m]
Acoustic velocity at 20 °C (longitudinal wave): 4920 [m/s]
Acoustic velocity at 20 °C (transverse wave): 2100 [m/s]
Electron work function: 4.36 [eV]
Thermal neutron capture cross section: 1.15•10-28 [m2]
Recrystallization temperature (1 hour at temp): 850 - 1300 [°C]
Superconductivity (transition temperature): < 9.2 [K]
Niobium is a glossy, grey, flexible, paramagnetic metal in group 5 of the periodic table. Typically, it has different arrangement of the outermost electron shells from the rest of the members. When the metal is exposed to the air, its color changes to blue. Although it has high melting point, it has a low density. Also, it is corrosion resistant, exhibits superconductivity properties, and forms dielectric oxide layers. On superconductivity, it is very changeable depend on the degree of purity. Purity makes it soft and ductile, but impurities make it harder.
We can see where niobium exists. Niobium is usually found with tantalum in ores which are rich in rare earths. The major place of this element are in Brazil, Nigeria, Canada and USA.
In 1801, Charles Hatchett was traveled from the US and sent to England where was discovered from an ore that had been put on display in big museum since 1753. This new discovered element was given a name 'Columbium', following another name of USA, Columbia, and the ore that this element was in was called 'Columbite'. Today, Columbium is known as niobium. It 1802 in Sweden, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg found a new element from Finnish ore, and it was given name 'Tantalum', following the Tantalus, the son of Zeus because this element was very hard to melt by acid. After this, they were confusion about those two elements because their characteristics were so similar. Despite William Hyde Wollaston made a result that they are totally different because they have different density; Columbium is 5.918g/cm^3 and Tantalus 8g/cm^3 at 1809, many scientists used to believed that they are same element. Heinrich Rose first separated Columbium and Tantalum clearly. He argued that both Columbite ore and Tantarite ore have two kinds of metal element, and one of them is Tantalum and the other is Columbium. He gave a new name from Columbium to Niobium. After him, the difference came out more. Although it was not pure, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac got the metal, Niobium, using NbCl5 in 1864. The pure metal niobium was extracted by Werner von Bolton at 1905.
Niobium is used to make steel. If niobium was put in the steels, the steel would be more special. It is HSLA, strong, light, and incorrodibile. That’s why it is used for cars, gas pipes and so on. FeNb and NiNb are used for making superalloys based on Ni, Co, and Fe, and because they have very good heat-resisting property, it is used to jet build rockets, and airplanes. Also, it is used in making superconductivity alloys. Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and NbTi are used for superconducting magnets. The superconducting magnets that are made by them are used for MRI scanners and nuclear magnetic resonance and they are being used usefully in the medical world. Finally, the Niobium can be changed to accessories and jewelries.
A superconductor is made by niobium and any other elements. Then what is a superconductor. A superconductor doesn't have any resistance. It will be occurred, when conduct electricity or transporting electrons from one atom to another.They are strong in exothermic reaction when electricity flows on this, so if use this, it can save up to 20% of waste of electricity. It allows electronic equipment to be smaller, and work more economically. It can occur in magnetic levitation because of the magnetic field. The magnetic field cannot get into superconductor, and the magnetic field that is in the superconductor get out to the outside.