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Jordan

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Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
اَلمَمْلَكَة اَلأُرْدُنِيَّة اَلهَاشِمِيَّة
Al-Mamlakah Al-Urduniyyah Al-Hashimiyyah
Location of Jordan
Map of Jordan
Location of Jordan
Location of Jordan
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Arabic: الله، الوطن، الملك
Transliteration: Allah, Al-Watan, Al-Malek
Translation: God, Country, The King
Anthem: عاش الملك
The Royal Anthem of Jordan
(As-salam al-Malaki al-Urdunni)[a]
Long Live the King

Patron Saint(s): Saint John the Baptist
CapitalAmman
Official language(s) Arabic
Ethnic groups  Arab 98%
Circassian 1%
Armenian 1%
Demonym Jordanian
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Abdullah II
 -  Prime Minister Fayez al-Tarawneh
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence
 -  End of British League of Nations mandate
25 May 1946 
Area
 -  Total 89,342 km2 (112th)
35,637 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.8
Population
 -  July 2011 estimate 6,508,271 (106th)
 -  July 2004 census 5,611,202 
 -  Density 68.4/km2 (133st)
138.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $36.893 billion (98th)
 -  Per capita $5,899 (108th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $29.233 billion (90th)
 -  Per capita $4,674 (96th)
Gini (2002–03) 38.8 (medium
HDI (2011) increase 0.698 (medium) (95th)
Currency Jordanian dinar (JOD)
Time zone UTC+2 (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (UTC+3)
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .jo, الاردن.
Calling code 962
a. ^ Also serves as the Royal anthem.


Jordan (Arabic: الأردنّ, al-ʾUrdunn), or the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. It is bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, Saudi Arabia to the east and south, and Israel and West Bank to the west. It shares with Israel the coastlines of the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea.

Contents

History

In antiquity, the present day country of Jordan became a home for several ancient kingdoms including: the kingdom of Edom, the kingdom of Moab, and the kingdom of Ammon. The chief city of the Ammonites was Rabath Ammon (modern Amman)[1] named after Ammon, himself. The Moabites and Ammonites settled the plateau east of the Dead Sea[2] and many also spread into Syria and Iraq. According to the Biblical Archaeology Review, they remain in the area to this day:

So what did happen to the Ammonites? The Babylonians did not destroy them when they wiped out Judah. Instead, Ammonite culture continued unscathed, and the Ammonites prospered right through the sixth century B.C.E. ... Although the Persians no doubt exercised suzerainty over the area, the basic Ammonite culture, including language and pottery techniques, continued just as it had been when Ammon was independent.[3]

A prophecy in the Book of Jeremiah compares them to an old bottle of wine which has aged without being disturbed, its "lees" have been allowed to settle at the bottom (Jeremiah 48:11). Other prophecies in Isaiah show them still living near Palestine in the end-time (Isaiah 11:14) and that they would be a small people.

Jordan later became part of the Islamic Empire across its different Caliphates stages including Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad Caliphate, and Abbasid Caliphate. After the decline of the Abbasid, Jordan was ruled by several conflicting powers including the Mongols, the Crusaders (who called the region Oultrejordain), the Ayyubids and the Mamluks until it became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. After World War I, various parts of the former Ottoman Empire in the Middle East were restructured. The Emirate of Transjordan was the name given by the British to about 80% of what they had been given as the Palestine mandate. It became an autonomous political subdivision of Palestine under British administration under the nominal auspices of the League of Nations. During this time it was ruled by King Abdullah I. For most of its history since independence from British administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King Hussein (1953-1999).

See Also

References

  1. Douglas, J (Ed) (et al) (1972) New Bible Dictionary. Inter-Varsity Press, London: p. 30
  2. Ibid: p. 46-47
  3. Herr, I.G. (1983, December). "The Amman Airport Structure And The Geopolitics Of Ancient Transjordan." Biblical Archaeology Review, p. 35

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