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Antibiotic resistance or antimicrobial resistance is a form of drug resistance so that some sub-populations of a particular microorganism, most commonly one or more strains of bacteria are able to survive exposure to one or more antibiotics. This can be acquired via: transformation, conjugation, transduction and mutation. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary reason for bacterial antibiotic resistance. One of its mechanisms is bacterial conjugation, a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact exchanging DNA that can add a new function to the recipient cell such as antibiotic resistance.
Approximately about 20 years after the first sale of penicillin a new discovery emerged: Antibiotic resistance. Resistance to antibiotics is considered an modern example of evolution in response to the widespread use of antibiotics but in a new report it was reported the discovery that resistance to antibiotics was already well built in organisms even before antibiotics were invented.
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Are known several ways of appearance of antibiotic resistance in bacteria:
- Reduced drug accumulation by decreasing drug permeability.
- Reduced drug accumulation by increasing active efflux (pumping out) of the drugs across the cell surface.
- Alteration of target site eliminating or reducing binding of antibiotic.
- Enzymatic deactivation - Enzymes, that by modification, inactive the antibiotic. This can occur for Hidrolysis or Derivation.
- Sequestration of antibiotic by protein binding.
- Alteration of metabolic pathway - Metabolic bypass of inhibited reaction.
- Binding of specific immunity protein to antibiotic.
- Overproduction of antibiotic target (titration).
- ↑ Kay E, Vogel TM, Bertolla F, Nalin R, Simonet P (July 2002). "In situ transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic (transplastomic) tobacco plants to bacteria". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (7): 3345–51. PMC 126776. PMID 12089013. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12089013.
- ↑ Koonin EV, Makarova KS, Aravind L (2001). "Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes: quantification and classification". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 709–42. PMID 11544372. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.709?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed.
- ↑ Nielsen KM (1998). "Barriers to horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation in soil bacteria". APMIS Suppl. 84: 77–84. PMID 9850687.
- ↑ Tortora, Gerard J.; Funke, Berdell R.; Case, Christine L. (2010). Microbiology: An Introduction (10th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-321-55007-1.
- ↑ Maczulak (2011). Encyclopedia of Microbiology. New York: Facts on File. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8160-7364-1.
- ↑ Oard, Michel J. (2012). "Fossil Ranges Continue to Expand". Journal of Creation (Jerlström, Pierre) 26 (1): 15. ISSN 1036-2916.
- ↑ Madsen, Eugene (2008). "8-Special and Applied Topics in Environmental Microbiology". Environmental Microbiology:From Genomes to Biogeochemistry. Malden, MA/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 427. ISBN 978-1-4051-3647-1.
- ↑ Li, X; Nikadio, H (2009). "Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update". Drug 69 (12): 1555–623. PMC 2847397. PMID 19678712. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847397.
- The "Evolution" of Antibiotic Resistance by Daniel Criswell, Ph.D. ICR Impact 378. December 2004.