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Penicillin

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Penicillin
Penicillin
Systematic name Penicillin
Chemical formula C9H11N2O4S
Molecular mass 243.26 g/mol
CAS number [69-57-8]
Disclaimer and references[1]

Penicillin is a group of antibiotics used to treat a large range of bacterial infections. It was one of the first and remains one of the most widely used antibiotic agents. It is a relatively safe drug but it comes with some side effects and you can have a allergic reaction. It was nicknamed the miracle drug during World War II and was discovered by Alexander Flemming from the Penicillium mold and was tested on humans during the war. Its used to treat many forms of infection and illness like ear infection.

Types of Penicillin

There are several types of penicillins, each used to treat different kinds of infections, such as skin infections, dental infections, ear infections, and other infections caused by bacteria but these drugs will not work for colds, flus, and other infections caused by viruses. Examples of penicillins are penicillin V and amoxicillin but The original form of penicillin is called penicillin G It is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, which can be destroyed by stomach acid, but it is still useful against anaerobic bacteria which is a type of bacteria that can live in the air. Newer penicillins are resistant to stomach acid, such as penicillin V, or have a broader spectrum, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. The disease-causing bacteria constantly rebuild their cell walls to protect themselves and maintain their structure. Penicillins work by penetrating and destroying these cell walls, consequently killing the bacteria cells. penicillin is a generally safe drug but allergic reactions can happen and there are side effects as with every drug. this drug was created by Alexander Flemming. He realized this when a sample of a certain bacteria that he was studying, Staphylococcus, got infected by some mold and that all bacteria cells closest to the mold were perishing. With further testing, Fleming learned the mold was actually creating a bacteria demolishing substance, which he named penicillin.[2]

History of Use

It is nicknamed the miracle drug for how many lives it saved in world war 2 the Trials of the drug on humans were so successful that great quantities of penicillin were used to treat infections suffered by wounded and ill soldiers. England was not able to manufacture penicillin in quantity because of its involvement in the war.they used to extract the remnants of the medicine from the soldiers urine since the medicine was so scares in the beginning [3]

Discovery and Development

penicillin nucleus

Penicillin was the start of medicine. Before its introduction there was no effective treatment for infections such as pneumonia, gonorrhea or rheumatic fever. Hospitals were full of people with blood poisoning contracted from a cut or a scratch, and doctors could do little for them but wait and hope. Antibiotics are compounds produced by bacteria and fungi which are capable of killing competing microbial species. But it was not until 1928 that penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered by Alexander Fleming, Professor of Bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital in London.

Returning from holiday on September 3, 1928, he began to sort through petri dishes containing colonies of Staphylococcus, bacteria that cause boils, sore throats and abscesses. He noticed something unusual on one dish. It was dotted with colonies, save for one area where a blob of mold was growing. The zone immediately around the mold—later identified as a rare strain of Penicillium notatum—was clear, as if the mold had secreted something that inhibited bacterial growth. Fleming found that his "mold juice" was capable of killing a wide range of harmful bacteria, such as streptococcus, meningococcus and the diphtheria bacillus. He then set his assistants, Stuart Craddock and Frederick Ridley, to isolate pure penicillin from the mold juice. It proved to be very unstable, and they were only able to prepare solutions of crude material to work with.he published his findings in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in June 1929, with only a passing reference to penicillin's potential therapeutic benefits.

At this stage it looked as if its main application would be in isolating penicillin-insensitive bacteria from penicillin-sensitive bacteria in a mixed culture. This at least was of practical benefit to bacteriologists, and kept interest in penicillin going. Others, including Harold Raistrick, Professor of Biochemistry at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, tried to purify penicillin but failed.[4]

Medical Uses

poster that was put up all over towns during war time

Penicillin is used to treat a variety of things like Skin Infection, Infection of the Middle Ear caused by Streptococcus, Strep Throat, and so many more. Penicillin is useful against infections in many parts of the body like the skin and soft tissue, tonsils, heart, lungs, and ears but since many bacteria are resistant to penicillin it is often wise to do a culture and sensitivity test before using penicillin. In some cases, there are only a few types of bacteria that are going to be a problem so there isn't really a need for texting. For example, dentists often prescribe penicillin after dental surgery in order to prevent infections. Although penicillin is a fairly safe drug the risk of having allergic reactions is always possible. People who have been allergic to cephalosporins are likely to be allergic to penicillin but a lot people with certain medical conditions or who are taking other certain medicines can have problems if they take penicillin for example Penicillin may cause false positive results on sugar tests for diabetes. there are a few side effects of penicillin The most common side effect is diarrhea, but Nausea , vomiting , and upset stomach can happen to. Most side effects of penicillin cannot be prevented. Amoxicillin has a lower incidence of diarrhea than ampicillin and is the preferred drug in most cases.[5]

Video

history of penicillin

References

  1. penicillin Chemspider . web. accessed November 26, 2017. author unknown
  2. antibiotics emedicinehealth. web. accessed on 28 November 2017. author unknown
  3. just the facts on the penicillin allergy american collage. web. accessed 26 November 2017. author unknown. /
  4. penicillin discovered HISTORY.com . web. accessed november 16 2017. author unknown
  5. V potassium oral Medicineplus. web. updated 24 October 2017. author unknown.