Geology is the study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth. This is usually taken to mean the formation of the fossil record or geologic column and other major features like mountains, rivers, lakes and the erosion that bodies of water cause as well as similar natural features of earth. The word comes from the Greek word geo meaning earth and logy which means "the study of."
From the creationist point of view, geology provides clear evidence of the global flood described in the Biblical book of Genesis. It is asserted that the flood-based interpretation of geological formations strongly supports a young earth and goes against the long ages the theory of evolution requires.
History and Development
One of the most prominent geologic thinkers was Niels Steensen (1638–1686) who was responsible for the development and observation of superposition. The term superposition describes the process of sedimentary rock deposition in a successive, mainly horizontal fashion. In his book entitled, Forerunner (1669) Steensen implied a roughly 6,000-year-old Earth and that fossils within the rock strata laid down through superposition were deposited by Noah’s Flood. The century after Seensen's death saw several prominent authors stand firm in the principles put forth in Steensen's book. The English geologist John Woodward (1665–1722) and the German geologist Johann Lehmann (1719–1767), to name a few, wrote books ultimately reinforcing that view.
The idea of an old earth is based on the principle of uniformitarianism, which is the doctrine that geologic processes have acted in the same regular manner and intensity throughout geologic time. This concept was begun in 1795 by James Hutton and further developed by Charles Lyell who is considered the father of modern geology. Charles Darwin took Lyell's book "Principles of Geology" during his historic voyage on the Beagle. Lyell's book inspired Darwin to form his theory of slow biological change known as gradualism.
- Main Article: Flood geology
Flood geology is the field of geology that deals with the effects of catastrophic flooding, and how such events have shaped geologic formations. Creation geology is based on the assumption that the Biblical flood described in the book of Genesis was a real and historical event of global magnitude, and is therefore also known as flood geology. Creation geologists seek primarily to show that Earth's geologic features are best interpreted within the scope of this Biblical cataclysm; including sedimentary strata, fossilization, fossil fuels, submarine canyons, plate tectonics, salt domes and frozen mammoths.
Flood geology is a historical science that is premised on catastrophism and the rejection of uniformitarianism. Creation geologists develop models based upon the historicity of the global flood, which are testable and falsifiable. Interestingly, the difference between flood models and the interpretations of naturalistic geologists is largely just one of intensity. All geologists today accept the view that allows for major catastrophes interspersed among large time periods of near stasis. In contrast, Creation model put a series of closely related cataclysmic events into a short period of time. Flood geologists explain strata with reference to catastrophes like the eruption of Mount St. Helens, which carved out enormous canyons and laid down large amounts of rock strata within the space of a single day.
There are two main components of geologic science, which are physical geology and historical geology. Physical geology is the study of the materials that make the various rock formations and structures of earth and the processes or mechanisms that shape them. Historical geology is the study of earth's history with the study of sedimentary rocks, their relation in geologic time and the study of fossils and locations within the rocks.
Stratigraphy is the study of rock strata, especially the distribution, deposition, and age of sedimentary rocks. William Smith advanced stratigraphy around 1815 when he mapped out strata of England and drew a geological map that is almost unchanged today. The following principles of stratigraphy are held as the basis for much of historical and physical geology.
- Main Article: Principle of superposition
The principle of superposition, now known as the scientific law of superposition, is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with stratigraphy. It was first put forth in the 17th century by the Danish scientist Niels Steensen.
- Main Article: Principle of continuity
Strata are formed from sediments in a fluid. Therefore, when any stratum forms it must be bordered on its sides by another solid body, or else, the sediments will continue around the earth.
- Main Article: Principle of original horizontality
When a stratum is formed, the lower surface and surfaces of its sides, corresponded with the surfaces of the adjacent bodies. The upper surface was parallel to the horizon, as far as that is possible. With the exception of the lowest stratum, all the strata were contained in two parallel planes to the horizon and were at one time parallel to the horizon.
Geologists (also know as geoscientists) study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth, and the Earth's geologic past and present by using sophisticated instruments to analyze the composition of earth, rock, and water. Many geologists help to search for natural resources such as groundwater, minerals, metals, and petroleum. Others work closely with environmental and other scientists to preserve and clean up the environment.
Creation geologists interpret the Earth's fossils and rocks based on the assumption that the Biblical flood described in the book of Genesis was a real and historical event, and seek primarily to show that Earth's geologic features are best interpreted within this worldview. The following are geologists who hold to this view, which is commonly called flood geology.
- Steve Austin
- Clifford Burdick
- Brent Carter
- George Gilder
- Harold Coffin
- Bill Hoesch
- John Woodward
- John Mackay
- Trevor Major
- Joseph Meert
- Collin Mitchell
- John Morris
- Terry Mortenson
- Adam Sedgwick
- Emil Silvestru
- Andrew Snelling
- Tas Walker
- John Whitmore
- Kurt Wise
- John Woodmorappe
- ...Edit list
Sites of Geologic Interest
- After originally refusing to issue a permit to creation scientist Andrew Snelling so he could collect rocks at the Grand Canyon, National Park authorities relented and issued a permit, June 30, 2017.
- Robot Sub Finds Surprisingly Thick Antarctic Sea Ice Not only is the amount of sea ice increasing each year, but an underwater robot now shows the ice is also much thicker than was previously thought, a new study reports. Accu Weather, November 30, 2014
- Rare Diamond Confirms That Earth's Mantle Holds an Ocean's Worth of Water Subterranean waters that have been long-held as the source of the global flood have been confirmed by recent research. Scientific American, March 12, 2014.
- Brazilian diamond hints at vast water reserve deep inside Earth Diamond found in Brazil is yielding new information about the composition of our planet.Reuters March 13, 2014.
- In the Canadian Rockies, a Major Fossil Find Intensifies the Object of Darwin's Doubt Sudden appearance of complex body plans mystified scientists in Darwin's day, and continues to pose a severe challenge. Evolution News & Views, February 13, 2014.
- Algae to Crude Oil: Million-Year Natural Process Takes Minutes in the Lab With the use of heat and pressure biotechnologists are converting a wet algae slurry into oil, a process likely similar to how oil formed rapidly during the global deluge. Science Daily, December 18, 2013.
- LA Times bans letters from climate skeptics Ban on discourse stirred outrage among scientists. Fox News, October 18, 2013.
- Climate change report's 'temperature hiatus' fuels skeptics Latest IPCC report affirms science of global warming but at pains to explain 15-year warming plateau. CBCNews, Sep 26, 2013.
- How to Solve the Cambrian Explosion: Turn Up the Evolutionary Speed Dial Media trumpets paper's assertions as the answer to all the critics, the scientific "findings" to finally rescue Darwin from his dilemma. Evolution News and Views, September 20, 2013.
- Reservoir deep under Ontario holds billion-year-old water Search is on for signs of microbial activity isolated in Earth's crust. Nature, May 15, 2013.
- A one-in-a-billion dinosaur find Rare dinosaur extracted from a cliff in a working mine, which is thought to have been washed out to sea during a flood then quickly covered in mud and silt. The Guardian, May 13, 2013.
- Ancient Fossil looks like Today's Acorn Worms Fossils were found in some of the deepest fossil-bearing rocks to be virtually unchanged in 505 million years. ICR News, April 9, 2013.
- Dr. Easterbrook’s presentation on climate change At Washington State Senate hearings of the Energy, Environment & Telecommunications Committee scientist challenges claims that global warming is a recent phenomena that is due to industrial activities. Doug Ericksen Washington State Senator. March 26, 2013.
- Triceratops Horn Soft Tissue Foils 'Biofilm' Explanation dinosaur fossils challenge conventional explanations and offer testimony of recent sedimentary deposits from a global flood recorded in Genesis. ICR News, March 18, 2013.
- Mortenson, Terry. "Where did the idea of millions of years come from?" June 21, 2007. Accessed August 20, 2008.
- Geology by Wikipedia
- Stratigraphy by Wikipedia
- Geoscientists and Hydrologists U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistica, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Accessed November 25, 2010.
- Analysis of the Main Principles of Stratigraphy on the Basis of Experimental Data by Guy Berthault
- Assessing Creationist Stratigraphy with Evidence from the Gulf of Mexico by Carl R. Froede Jr., and John K. Reed, Creation Research Society Quarterly 36(2) September 1999.
- Flood Geology Links Northwest Creation Network
- Flood models: the need for an integrated approach by A.C. McIntosh, T. Edmondson & S. Taylor, Journal of Creation 14(1):52–59, April 2000.
- Geology and the Flood by Henry Morris, Acts & Facts Aug 1, 1973
- Geology and the Flood of Noah PowerPoint presentation by Chris Ashcraft
- Geology Sinks in the Mud by Creation-Evolution Headlines
- More Creationist Research Part I: Geological Research by Duane Gish, Creation Research Society Quarterly 25(4):161 March 1989
- Stratigraphic Evidence of the Flood by Stuart E. Nevins. A Symposium on Creation (Vol. III), pp. 32-65