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The Endoplasmic reticulum is a transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that will float freely in the cytoplasm. All eucaryotic cells have an endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
The ER has two forms: the rough ER and the smooth ER. The rough ER is labeled as such because it has ribosomes adhering to its outer surface, whereas the smooth ER does not. Translation of the mRNA for those proteins that will either stay in the ER or be exported (moved out of the cell) occurs at the ribosomes attached to the rough ER. The smooth ER serves as the recipient for those proteins synthesized in the rough ER. Proteins to be exported are passed to the Golgi apparatus, sometimes called a Golgi body or Golgi complex, for further processing, packaging, and transport to a variety of other cellular locations.
- ↑ Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walters, Peter (2008). Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed.). New York and London: Garland Science. p. 723. ISBN 0-8153-4105-9.
- ↑ What is a Cell? by the National Center for Biotechnology Information